2014 - 2015 Multi Faith Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Education Calendar eBook


The specific duties require public bodies to publish:  Information to demonstrate their compliance with the Equality Duty, by 31 January 2012 (6 April 2012 for Schools) and then at least annually.
2012covercalendermonthlyReference Guide for Schools, Local Authorities, Hospitals or Chaplaincy services, Police, Public or Voluntary Sector, Hotel and Travel business - Awareness of World Religions including their cultural, history, philosophy and political context. Bahai's, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Paganism, Sikhism, Shinto and Zoroastrianism. As well as Chinese, Jewish, Indian, Muslim, solar or lunar Calendars etc.

Over half of schools failing in religious education says Ofsted. Philosopher Dan Dennett calls for religion -- all religion -- to be taught in schools, so we can understand its nature as a natural phenomenon. 

Dan Dennett: Let's teach religion -- all religion -- in schools

Ofsted Religious education (RE) Published: 6 October 2013 - for Age group: 5–18, said today. More than half of schools found to be failing pupils on religious education
  The report identifies barriers to better RE and suggests ways in which the subject might be improved. The report is written for all those who teach RE, for those who lead the subject, and for headteachers of primary and secondary schools.

How shall I talk of the sea to the frog, If it has never left his pond? How shall I talk of the frost to the bird of the summerland, If it has never left the land of its birth? How shall I talk of life with the sage, If he is prisoner of his doctrine? - Chung Tsu, 4th Century B.C. -

Communities are complex and multi-layered, a particular community may be made up of many 'cultures'. These may be apparent through arts and cultural activities, which are already happening and many more that, are less visible to people outside that community.

Faith, Cultural, Belief, Community Groups - A community that includes religious groups or churches. Individuals who share a common culture, including certain behaviours, knowledge, values, assumptions, expectations and skills. May relate to language, shared sense of history, religious and spiritual observances; protocol, eating and drinking habits; prohibitions and taboos; forms of artistic expression.

calendermonthlyCultural Diversity - The mosaic of individuals and groups with varying backgrounds, experiences, styles, perceptions, values and beliefs. Differences in race, ethnicity, language, nationality, or religion among various groups within a community, organization, or nation.

The five major world religions - John Bellaimey

calendermonthlyReligious holy days are based on different calendars, including the lunar calendar, which is determined by phases of the moon. Jan 2014 - April 2015 Monthly Planner Culture Diversity Multi Faiths Calendar eBook. The school’s cultural values are reinforced through displays of Monthly Planner throughout the school. Cultural awareness is developed through the Life skills programme, Community Skills and through the Learning and Teaching Policy. A3 Multi Faiths Monthly Planner for quick reference sample guides for July 2014  http://www.multifaiths.com/pdf/ramadan2014.pdf

Acas Religion and Belief Guide - This new updated guide gives employers and managers practical help in complying with the Equality Act 2010 and in creating a fair working environment in which no one is put at a disadvantage because of religion or belief. > http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/f/l/religion_1.pdf

Are the true ‘representatives’ of religious communities being consulted? And is the religious profile of Britain being properly represented, or only small portions of it? Race including nationality and ethnicity - Religion or belief influence many aspects of people’s lives including practices and beliefs around birth, death, marriage, health, food, duty, dress code and many other areas. It is important for employers and service providers be aware of these and to be able to appropriately respond when someone’s beliefs impacts on their ability to carry out their work or deliver a service. Download eBooks Reports from http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/research_report_48__religion_or_belief.pdf

Ramadan 2014

Religious holy days are based on different calendars, including the lunar calendar, which is determined by phases of the moon. They calendermonthlycan fall within a range of days, the exact date not being determined until very close to the time. Where these dates fall within term times, there may be a conflict between observing the holy day and meeting academic requirements. A3 Multi Faiths Monthly Planner for quick reference sample guides for June 2014  http://www.multifaiths.com/pdf/ramadan2014.pdf

Ramadan 1435 AH: The Astronomical New Moon is on June 27, 2014 (Friday) at 8:08 Universal Time (11:08 a.m. Makkah time). Sunset at Makkah on June 27 is at 7:07 p.m., while moonset is at 7:08 p.m. Moon is born before sunset in Makkah and moonset is after sunset. Therefore first day of Ramadan is June 28, 2014 (Saturday), insha'Allah. First Tarawih prayer will be on Friday night.

Eid ul-Fitr 1435 AH:The Astronomical New Moon is on July 26, 2014 (Saturday) at 22:41 Universal Time. (1:41 a.m. on July 27, Makkah time). On July 26, Saturday, sunset at Makkah is 7:03 p.m. and moonset is 6:33 p.m. Moon is born after sunset in Makkah and moon sets before sunset. On July 27, Sunday, sunset at Makkah is 7:02 p.m. and moonset is at 7:14 p.m. Moon is born before sunset, while moonset is after sunset. Therefore, first day of Shawwal, i.e., Eid ul-Fitr is July 28, Monday, insha'Allah.

Eid ul-Adha 1435 AH: Regarding Eid ul-Adha, the Fiqh Council of North America will follow the Official Announcement of Saudi Arabia. May Allah (swt) keep us on the right path, and accept our fasting and prayers. Ameen. For more detailed information, please visit: www.fiqhcouncil.org or www.moonsighting.com

Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi,
Chairman, Fiqh Council of North America

A Fiqhi Discussion in a Book by Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah.

This book shatters the myth that naked-eye sighting of the new moon and completing 30 days in the case of weather-related or other obscurities are the only two valid methods of determining the month of Ramadan. The author explains that certainty, not actual sighting, is the real objective of the Shari'ah and that the Qur'an does not mandate physical sighting. A careful analysis shows that those hadiths that seemingly require sighting actually require certainty.

Al-hilal has also been culturally and metaphorically used to symbolize the new Moon of the first two to seven nights and then the last two nights of the month because people used to raise their voices while informing others about the beginning or end of the month as the Arabic lexicon authority Jamal al-Din Ibn Manzur emphatically states: The Hilal (new Moon) is called Hilal because the people raise their voices to inform each other about it.

The assertion that all Muslim scholars prohibit the use of astronomical calculations, both in affirming or negating the month of Ramadan, is not correct. As calculation is now more accurate than naked-eye sighting, due to certain astronomical and scientific advancements, the use of calculation is the closest to the real objective of the Shari'ah and to the spirit of the hadiths. [Paperback ISBN-10: 1-56564-334-8] A Fiqhi Discussion in a Book by Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah.

Egyptian cadi Ahmad Muhammad Shakir refers to the principle of Muslim law according to which « what is relative cannot refute what is absolute, nor can it be preferred to it, according to the consensus of the ulamas. » The observation of the new moon with the naked eye is relative, and can be the subject of error, whereas the knowledge of the beginning of lunar months, based on astronomical calculations, is absolute, and belongs to the domain of certainty.

The lunation (period of time between two successive new moons) varies within a zone whose limits are 29.27 days at the Summer solstice and 29.84 days at the Winter solstice, giving for the 12 months’ year an average length of 354.37 days.

From an astronomical point of view, lunar months do not alternate between a length of 30 days and 29 days in succession. There are, at times, short series of 29 days, and at other times short series of 30 days, as illustrated by the length (in days) of the following 24 lunar months, corresponding to the period 2007-2008 : « 30, 29, 30, 29, 29, 30, 29, 29, 30, 30, 29, 30, 30, 30, 29, 30, 29, 29, 30, 29, 29, 30, 29, 30 »

At the institutional level, the (shi’ite) dynasty of Fatimids in Egypt was the only State to use a pre-calculated calendar, over a period of two centuries, between the 10th and 12th centuries, before a change of political regime reactivated the procedure of observation of the new moon.

An international conference was thus held in Morocco, in November 2006, to study the issues involved, with the participation of astronomers from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, UAE, Iran, Guinea, Libya, Morocco, and the USA. The overwhelming majority of the participants, including Saudi, Egypt, and Iran astronomers agreed that the calendar adopted by Fiqh Council of North America could be used as a Global Islamic Calendar.

But FCNA changed position in 2007 to align itself on a new decision by the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR), which used the same parameters as those of the Umm al Qura calendar to determine the beginning of Islamic months. These parameters are as follows : The criteria adopted by Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA) and Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) are that the month begins, if (1) Moon is born before Makkah sunset, and (2) moon sets in Makkah after sunset.

FCNA and ECFR justify the adoption of the new parameters by their desire to help develop a consensus within the Muslim community throughout the world on issues of common interest, among which that of the calendar.

Proposed Makkah Hijri Calendar can be used as a global Islamic Calendar. It is based on the criteria that crescent is calculated to be visibile by naked eye in Makkah or anywhere in the world west of Makkah before the Fajr time in Makkah. This can be achieved by converting time interval into the degree interval defined as the Limiting Horizon - LH), then the new month is considered as begun, referred to Makkah.

Obviously, if there is sighting before the Fajr prayer in Makkah, at some Intermediary Horizon -IH , then the month will also be considered as begun. One Propsed Makkah Islamic Calendar http://www.makkahcalendar.org

From a methodological point of view, the substitution of the parameters of Umm al Qura calendar to those initially set by FCNA in its August 2006 decision has the following consequences:
• The requirement that the “conjunction” take place “before sunset at the coordinates of Mecca” instead of 12:00 noon GMT, as previously specified by FCNA, adds 2hours 40 minutes to the time period during which the conjunction will be taken into account.

This improves the chances that the first day of the new month will immediately follow the day on which the conjunction takes place.
• But, the requirement that “moonset take place after sunset” at the Mecca coordinates sets an unduly restrictive condition, which didn’t exist in FCNA parameters of 2006.

It implies that the new moon will be potentially sightable at Mecca on the evening of the day of conjunction, whereas the FCNA based its reasoning on the fact that the new moon would be potentially sightable “somewhere on Earth”.
According to FCNA, the data of the calendar thus obtained differs only marginally from the data developed using its methodology of August 2006.
Concretely, the decisions of FCNA and ECFR have already had the following results:The principle of use of a calendar based on calculations is officially sponsored by religious leaders who are well-known and respected within the Muslim community

This principle is officially adopted by Islamic organizations whose legitimacy and credibility are unquestionable; The Muslim communities in Europe and America are willing to use this calendar to determine the beginning of all months, including those associated with religious events.

The impact of these decisions, worldwide, will of course depend on the attitude of the various Muslim Governments towards them, since it is the latter which have the last word on such matters, each one in its territory. For example Saudi Arabia only uses the Umm al Qura calendar for administrative purposes.

It considers that it would be against the shari’ah to use it for the determination of religious dates, such as the beginning of Ramadan, eids al-Fitr and al-Adha, the dates associated with Hajj, the 1st of Muharram, etc. But, once the use of the calendar based on calculations becomes part and parcel of the culture of the Muslim community in Europe and America, won’t the minds in Saudi Arabia be more open to the use of the Umm al Qura calendar for the determination of all lunar months, including those associated with religious occasions?

The initiatives of CFAN and ECFR may thus help many Muslim States develop, in time, a consensus about the adoption of a “Global Islamic calendar” for use by all Muslim communities in the world.

I wonder, why our Ulamaa' (Scholars) issue Fatwas, which seem rediculous. For example,:
(1) 300 years ago, when clocks and watches were invented; using those devices not allowed per Fatwas of that time for prayer times.
(2) 150 years ago, translating Qur'an in any other language was considered a tabu, and was not allowed per Fatwas by Ulamaa of that time.
(3) 100 years ago, in India, calculated Prayer Times were not acceptable per Fatwas by Ulamaa of that time.
(4) 60 years ago, loud speakers use for Prayers was considered Haraam, per Fatwas by Ulamma' in Indo-Pak.
(5) 50 years ago, taking picture for ID or passports was considered Haraam, per Fatwas by Ulamma' in Indo-Pak.

Now, all the above is considered, not only allowed, but people don't even know that these were not allowed before. Why, it takes decades for Ulamaa' to accept such things.

With a powerful telescope and a double field-flattener binoculars you'll be able to view quite distant images in the skies.
(6) For the last 30 years, Ulamaa' do not accept moon-sighting by telescope.
    Would it take another few decades to accept that??


05 April 2011 - Marks a milestone in equality law with the introduction of the new public sector equality duty (PSED). The new duty is encompassed in section 149 of the Equality Act 2010. The nine protected characteristics are age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation.

2012covercalendermonthlyWhat equality law means for your Association, Club or Society.  What equality law means for business when you’re providing goods, facilities or servicesVoluntary and community sector (charities and religion or belief organisations) 

Delivering services: staff, places, advertisements and marketing, written materials, websites etc. The duty to make reasonable adjustments to remove barriers for disabled people.  It does not matter whether you give the service for free (for example, giving someone information - for services) or if you charge for it. It does not matter if you are set up as a Sole Trader, a Partnership, a limited company or any other legal structure.

What is the public sector equality duty? The public sector equality duty came into force on 5 April 2011. It replaces the public sector equality duties covering race, gender (including some aspects of gender reassignment) and disability, extending them to cover age, disability, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation and gender reassignment more comprehensively than before. This is a statutory duty, meaning it is a legal obligation
The legislative framework has two main components: the general duty and the specific duties. The general duty is contained in the Equality Act 2010 and sets out the main aims of the duty.

It requires public bodies to have due regard to the need to:  Eliminate discrimination, harassment or victimisation, or any other conduct prohibited by the Act.  Advance equality of opportunity between people who share a protected characteristic and those who do not. Foster good relations between people who share a protected characteristic and those who do not.

The ECHR is a ‘living instrument’: this term is used to illustrate that the European Court of Human Rights interprets the ECHR in the light of present day conditions and will be influenced by developments in commonly accepted standards. This means that whereas a claim that an ECHR right had been breached may have failed in the past, it might be upheld in the future. http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/advice-and-guidance/guidance-for-service-providers/businesses/ Human Rights

Food Catering Ensure that food is carefully labelled. This removes anxiety about eating food that is not acceptable for religious or belief reasons. This is also good practice for people with food allergies and other dietary requirements

  •  Always have vegetarian and vegan options
  • Vegetarians do not eat any meat or fish or items made with animal products
  • Vegans are strict vegetarians who do not eat any dairy products or eggs. Most vegans do eat honey.
  •  Have some vegetarian dishes with no eggs and ensure that some of these do not contain garlic or onions
  •  Ensure there is no animal fat in vegetarian dishes and that any cheese used is free from rennet
  •  Puddings should not contain gelatine – or should be clearly labelled if they do
  •  No alcohol should be used in the preparation of food
  •  Kosher rules have different interpretations but it is normally sufficient to provide vegetarian food with disposable cups, plates and cutlery
  •  Muslims will normally be happy with vegetarian food but any meat used needs to be halal (permitted and slaughtered in accordance with Islamic law)
  •  If meat is served, use chicken or turkey and avoid beef and pork
  •  Make sure vegetarian and non-vegetarian food is served on separate plates and preferably on separate tables
  •  Seek advice from the appropriate bodies such as faith groups or the Vegetarian Society (www.vegsoc.org)


  • There are different traditions and varying approaches to the consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee
  •  Alcohol is forbidden by Islam and there are warnings of the dangers associating with people drinking alcohol
  • Baha’is don’t drink alcohol and it is considered undesirable for Hindus and Jains. Some Christian groups also advocate abstinence
  •  If alcohol is provided at an event, always ensure that non-alcoholic drinks are available and clearly identified
  •  As stimulants are avoided by observant members of certain traditions and by increasing numbers of people for health reasons, an alternative to tea and coffee (e.g. herbal teas, juice or water) should always be provided
  •  It is important therefore to consider where social events are held, including informal practices like going to the pub after a tutorial and this may exclude certain people.

Cultural and Faith Diversity http://www.ed.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.14082!fileManager/cultural_faith_diversity.pdf


We aspire that this Multifaiths Events Calendar 2012 - 2013 eBook will broaden the understanding and acceptance of different cultures. The festivals noted in the eBook are annual events that people celebrate once during the course of a solar or lunar year.

calendermonthly Other cycles of time are also important; The New or Full Moon, a season, a week day (Jewish Shabbat /Jumma’h prayers), or a daily cycle (Eucharist), these cycles are less obvious and they are as important to the faithful as annual festivals.

Denominations or sects within a religion can be considered as a religion or religious belief, such as Catholics or Protestants within Christianity. The concept of belief includes beliefs such as Humanism, or other philosophical beliefs similar to a religion. However, other categories of beliefs, such as support for a political party, are not included.

Awareness of World Religions including their cultural, history, philosophy and political context.  It is good practice for any organisations to have, or arrange access to, an up-to-date Multi Faiths event calendar available for planning purposes. Faiths will always be a work in progress, intended to be continually stretched upon with new and updated material.

  • Training employees on diversity policies
  • Community initiatives and outreaches
  • Time off – There are religious festivals or spiritual observance days which workers may request holiday in order to celebrate or attend. Employers should consider if it is practical for the employee to be away from work and have sufficient holiday entitlement
  • Do you celebrate diversity in your organization? Dietary requirements in staff canteens and restaurants

 NHS Missed Appointments. When the outpatients department of an NHS trust examined missed appointments, they found that patients from ethnic minorities were more likely to miss their appointments on certain religious dates.

2012covercalendermonthlyNeed for Multifaith Calendar? With our new calendar, your organisation can have an up-to-date events whereby you can plan ahead. We have included religious festivals of all the major faiths in our society today, with notes to understand the meaning and importance of a festival. We have free as well as paid membership content on our new interactive site. http://www.multifaiths.com/demo1/index.html

Islam attaches importance to the structuring of each day, so as to make the best use of time. Daily, Weekly and Yearly worship is laid out in a specific regular system that enables people to lead their life in a productive way. Daily affairs and work are organised within this framework of times of prayer, defined according to the sun by day, and the moon and its phases by night.


Fewer than four in ten schools (38 per cent) were aware of the new public sector equality duty which was introduced earlier this year as part of the Equality Act 2010. This extends their existing equality duties for gender, race and disability into new areas. Limited progress has been made on equality issues like sexual orientation, gender re-assignment and maternity and pregnancy. This indicates that schools have a steep learning curve following the introduction of the new legislation. Download this report: equality_duties_and_schools pdf report

Technology of Spirituality

In education for cultivating wisdom and building peace, a whole school approach needs to be promoted so that administrators, teachers, students, parents and community leaders (civic, social, cultural, faith) are collaborating with each other to synergize their contributions and energies in all aspects of teaching - learning (formal and hidden curriculum), co-curricular programs, and school-family- community relationships.

Extracts From Subsidiary Guidance Issued To Inspectors January 2012

Ofsted have placed equalities and human rights at the heart of their approach to regulation and inspection in England. The inspection framework for schools includes specific questions about: • how schools are meeting their equalities duties. • whether there are different outcomes for different groups of children. • how schools are dealing with bullying.
Ofsted has introduced a ‘limiting judgement’ on equalities performance which means that schools cannot be judged as excellent if their equalities performance is inadequate.

The following extracts are taken from official public guidance issued to all inspectors to support Section 5 inspection under the new Framework. The extracts include reference to: Evaluating the curriculum which includes the statement: ‘Where a school does not provide the National Curriculum and RE, inspectors will need to fully explore the school’s reasons.’ Defining Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development

  1.  Pupils’ spiritual development is shown by their: beliefs, religious or otherwise, which inform their perspective on life and their interest in and respect for different people’s feelings and values
  2. sense of enjoyment and fascination in learning about themselves, others and the world around them, including the intangible use of imagination and creativity in their learning, Willingness to reflect on their experiences.
  3. Pupils’ moral development is shown by their: ability to recognise the difference between right and wrong and their readiness to apply this understanding in their own lives understanding of the consequences of their actions
  4. Interest in investigating, and offering reasoned views about, moral and ethical issues.
  5. Pupils’ social development is shown by their: use of a range of social skills in different contexts, including working and socialising with pupils from different religious, ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds
  6. willingness to participate in a variety of social settings, cooperating well with others and being able to resolve conflicts effectively interest in, and understanding of, the way communities and societies function at a variety of levels.
  7. Pupils’ cultural development is shown by their: understanding and appreciation of the wide range of cultural influences that have shaped their own heritage
  8. willingness to participate in, and respond to, for example, artistic, musical, sporting, mathematical, technological, scientific and cultural opportunities
  9. interest in exploring, understanding of, and respect for cultural diversity and the extent to which they understand, accept, respect and celebrate diversity, as shown by their attitudes towards different religious, ethnic and socio-economic groups in the local, national and global communities.
  10. Parent Engagement Policy – This policy supports student learning and public confidence by involving parents in the implementation of the equity and inclusive education strategy. Through school councils and parent involvement committees, parents are encouraged to provide advice to educators on how to support and promote equity and inclusive education.
  11. The use of curricula and teaching and learning materials that: impart knowledge about the history, traditions, language and culture of existing minorities to majority groups; impart knowledge about society as a whole to minorities; aim at eliminating prejudices about culturally distinct population groups within a country; involve various cultural systems through the presentation of knowledge from different cultural perspectives; create a comprehensive grasp of reading, writing and the spoken word, enabling the citizen to gain access to information, to understand clearly the situation in which he or she is living, to express his or her needs, and to take part in activities in the social environment.

  12. Diversity and Equality Strategy 2010 to 2014 - The National College for School Leadership download http://multifaiths.com/pdf/edunationalcollege.pdf
  13. Early life chances for children in education Dowload Link http://multifaiths.com/pdf/earlyyears_lifechances.pdf
  14. Identify and acknowledge one’s own cultural and spiritual heritage, including one’s cultural values, biases and subjectivity and how it impacts one’s attitudes in providing care. The Curriculum and Pupil's Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural Development, in school for teachers: http://www.multifaiths.com/pdf/schooldiversity1.pdf
  15. School Single Equality Download  http://www.multifaiths.com/equalityschemetemplateschools.doc
  16. The equality duties and schools http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/research/rr70_equality_duties_and_schools.pdf
  17. There is a danger to put a label on pupils based on their family or community background. The role of teachers as facilitators to support children in their orientation towards religions and beliefs, rather than being truth holders about religious facts and moral standards http://www.oslocoalition.org/documents/toledo_guidelines.pdf
  18. Adequate teacher initial education and permanent professional development aiming at creating: awareness of the positive value of cultural diversity and of the right of the person to be different; a critical awareness of the role that local communities and local knowledge systems, languages and social practices play in the learning process and construction of the person in national, regional and global societies;
  19. WHAT IS INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION? At its core, intercultural education has two focal points:
    It is education which respects, celebrates and recognises the normality of diversity in all parts of human life. It sensitises the learner to the idea that humans have naturally developed a range of different ways of life, customs and worldviews, and that this breadth of human life enriches all of us.
    It is education which promotes equality and human rights, challenges unfair discrimination and promotes the values upon which equality is built. Intercultural education is a synthesis of the learning from multicultural education approaches and anti-racist education approaches which were commonly used internationally from the 1960s to the 1990s. Ireland has long had an experience of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious diversity.
  21. http://www.ncca.ie/en/Publications/Syllabuses_and_Guidelines/Leaving_Certificate_Religious_Education_Teacher_Guidelines.pdf


KEY POINTS: The Equality Act 2010 provides a single, consolidated source of discrimination law. It simplifiesthe law and it extends protection from discrimination in some areas. As far as schools are concerned, for the most part, the effect of the new law is the same as it has been in the past – meaning that schools cannot unlawfully discriminate against pupils because of their sex, race, disability, religion or belief or sexual orientation.

The exceptions to the discrimination provisions for schools are all replicated in the new act – such as the content of the curriculum, collective worship and admissions to single sex schools and schools of a religious character. Schools that were already complying with previous equality legislation should not find major differences in what they need to do

  • Acts of worship
    2.13 There is a general exception, which applies to all schools, to the religion or belief provisions which allows

    calendermonthlyall schools to have acts of worship or other forms of collective religious observance. This means the daily act of collective worship, which for maintained schools is mandatory and should be of a broadly Christian nature, is not covered by the religion or belief provisions. The exception means that schools will not be acting unlawfully if they do not provide an equivalent act of worship for other faiths.

    2.14 Schools are also free to celebrate religious festivals and could not be claimed to be discriminating against children of other faiths if, for example, they put on a nativity play at Christmas or hold a celebration to mark other religious festivals such as Diwali or Eid.

    Schools’ duty of care
    2.21 This guidance sets out the position on the extent of the Equality Act only. However, as pointed out already, it must be remembered that schools also have many other duties, including their duty of care to their pupils, and their duty to deliver key areas of the curriculum such as religious education or sex and relationship education.

    3.28 Schools with a religious character, like all schools, have a responsibility for the welfare of the children in their care and to adhere to curriculum guidance. It is not the intention of the Equality Act to undermine their position as long as they continue to uphold their responsibilities in these areas. If their beliefs are explained in an appropriate way in an educational context that takes into account existing guidance on the delivery of Sex and Relationships Education (SRE) and Religious Education (RE), then schools should not be acting unlawfully.

The guidance states: ‘Every school – whatever its intake and wherever it is located – is responsible for educating children and young people who will live and work in a country which is diverse in terms of cultures, religions or beliefs, ethnicities and social backgrounds

Building Community Cohesion is defined as working towards a society in which there is a common vision and sense of belonging by all communities; the diversity of people’s backgrounds and circumstances is appreciated and valued; similar life opportunities are available to all; and strong and positive relationships exist and continue to be developed in the workplace, in schools and in the wider community’. Guidance on the Duty to Promote Community Cohesion, DCSF / CLG, 2007

The school community – Religious Education provides a positive context within which the diversity of cultures, beliefs and values can be celebrated and explored.

2012covercalendermonthlyThe community within which the school is located – Religious Education provides opportunities to investigate patterns of diversity of religion and belief and forge links with different groups in the local area.
 The UK community – a major focus of Religious Education is the study of diversity of religion and belief in the UK and how this influences national life.
The global community – RE involves the study of matters of global significance recognising the diversity of religion and belief and its impact on world issues.

 Religious Education subject matter gives particular opportunities to promote an ethos of respect for others, challenge stereo types and build understanding of other cultures and beliefs. This contributes to promoting a positive and inclusive school ethos that champions democratic values and human rights. In summary, religious education for children and young people:

  1. Provokes challenging questions about the meaning and purpose of life, beliefs, the self, issues of right and wrong, and what it means to be human. It develops pupils’ knowledge and understanding of Christianity, other principal religions, and religious traditions that examine these questions, fostering personal reflection and spiritual development
  2.  Encourages pupils to explore their own beliefs (religious or non-religious), in the light of what they learn, as they examine issues of religious belief and faith and how these impact on personal, institutional and social ethics; and to express their responses.
  3. This also builds resilience to anti-democratic or extremist narratives enables pupils to build their sense of identity and belonging, which helps them flourish within their communities and as citizens in a diverse society.
  4.  Teaches pupils to develop respect for others, including people with different faiths and beliefs, and helps to challenge prejudice
  5.  Prompts pupils to consider their responsibilities to themselves and to others, and to explore how they might contribute to their communities and to wider society. It encourages empathy, generosity and compassion.
  6. The role of teachers as facilitators to support children in their orientation towards religions and beliefs, rather than being truth holders about religious facts and moral standards.

http://www.multifaiths.com/pdf/re-guidanace-2010 Religious Education has an important part to play as part of a broad, balanced and coherent curriculum to which all pupils are entitled. RE are designed and provided by careful planning through locally agreed syllabuses and in schools, taking into account the need to offer breadth of content, depth of learning and coherence between concepts, skills and content.

At Oakington Manor School Wembley, we aim to provide our pupils with a broad, balanced, spiritual, moral and knowledge based religious education in which every child will be able to achieve an insight into the nature of Religion and what it means to be religious. We endeavour to create an atmosphere in which every child feels secure in their own beliefs and has respect for the beliefs of others, whilst acknowledging the broadly Christian tradition of the country. We feel that all children have the right to discuss the elements of their won faith, the faith of others and the ideas of those who have no religious beliefs in a free atmosphere that promotes openness, fairness and mutual respect.

  • The children, staff and parents of Oakington Manor school come from diverse cultural, religious and ethnic backgrounds and we value this in a positive way. We also believe that cultural and linguistic diversity will help enrich our lives.
  • We actively wish to promote equality of opportunity, racial equality and good relations between all the different groups in the school. We believe that knowledge of other peoples’ backgrounds as well as their own will serve to promote mutual cultural respect and a high self esteem for everyone in the school.
  • We believe that each child should be encouraged to be aware of the role played by religion in the community and the wider world. We believe that Religious Education and the development of the whole person are an integral part of a child’s education.

Collective Worship
Collective Worship takes place daily when children are assembled together. The daily assembly can take several forms and in a typical week this would be:
on 1 day - class or year group assembly
on 2 days - "Key Stage" assembly
on 2 days - Whole school assembly

In most weeks one of the whole school assemblies will be presented by a class or a year group. Many of the festivals of the major world religions will be celebrated at this time. On the other occasions the focus of the assembly will be a general religious or spiritual theme. The topic may be presented in relation to one or more religions or from a moral or spiritual aspect.
A termly schedule of class assemblies is published before the end of the previous term. To allow each class to develop its assembly theme in an individual way, teachers are not required to state the religious content of their assembly until a week before its presentation.

The school's approach to Collective Worship is in line with the current guidelines of the Brent Standing Advisory Council on Religious Education.

Reception CHRISTMAS Christianity

Year 1 Chinese New Year Cross Cultural
Year 2 Great Fire of London Cross Cultural
Year 3 Easter Christianity
Year 4 Diwali Hinduism
Year 5 Pesach / Passover Judaism
Year 6 Eid-Ul-Fitr Islam

In addition the following festivals may be celebrated:
Eid Adha (Islam), Chanukah (Judaism), Ascension Day (Christianity), Holi (Hinduism), Guru Nanak's birthday (Sikhism), Buddha's Birthday (Buddhism), His Imperial Majesty's birthday (Rastafarianism), Al Hijrar (Islamic New Year), Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year), New Year's Day, St. Andrew"s Day, St. David's Day, St. George’s Day, St. Patrick's Day



Whatever our religion or belief, and however we interpret and practise it, we should seek to understand and respect the religion or belief of others, one should also recognise that there are a wide variety of interpretations and practices within each religion or belief

Why the NHS should take Spirituality, Religion and Beliefs seriously Spiritual healthcare is an important aspect of healthcare. Total care includes care for the physical, social, psychological and spiritual dimensions of the person. If we do not acknowledge a patient’s religion or beliefs, we cannot  communicate with the ‘whole’ person, and they cannot participate in their recovery and make informed decisions about their treatment.

  • Different cultures and faiths have a variety of views on health, ill health, birth, dying and death, and we need to be aware of the diversity which will affect their path and outcome of treatment.
  • Originally spiritual leaders were the primary healers of the sick. They are still the primary contact for health care for many individuals today. Then, too, religious beliefs are often intertwined with health practices, influencing the acceptance of illness, treatment and nursing care.
  • Allowing patients to express or practice their religion helps them to overcome the sometimes multiple losses (health, mobility, role, status, self image, confidence) which ill health brings. In palliative care religion and belief can provide hope and a sense of meaning and strength to cope with the situation. Religion and belief can provide comfort to a patient whose life is ending. The sense of belonging which religion gives can enable a dying patient to be peaceful and overcome anxiety and terminal restlessness and can be a support to relatives.

2012cover2.2 Religious Needs are concerned with the observance and practice of a particular faith. For example people may need to pray, observe festivals, attend services of worship or follow dietary requirements or dress codes and these practices may be the most important aspects of their daily lives.

2.3 Pastoral Needs are those which are associated with relationship, emotion, feelings and personal wellbeing, feeling that they are being cared for by those around them and the organisation in which they find themselves.

2.4 Cultural Needs of a patient are those needs that have been shaped by their upbringing and their community as well as their religious beliefs. Geographical origin often shapes their needs more than just religion.

2.5 The Spiritual and Pastoral Care team (SPCT) consists of chaplains, administration staff and volunteers. The team includes people from a variety of religions that are most appropriate for the people that are served by NUH, hence the use of the term Multi-Faith.

3.7 Respecting Diversity - The Spiritual and Pastoral Care Team must be prepared to listen

calendermonthlyand talk with people of any faith, or those who profess no faith. Staff (including those who work as volunteers for the hospitals) will not at any time try to manipulate or influence the religious or cultural beliefs, which are held by the patient being visited.

Staff members should however feel safe to explore issues of faith and belief with a patient if invited to do so by the patient. Religion and belief can shape the life of an individual through: Provision of Spiritual and Pastoral Care Version 1 March 2010 - Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust Ref GG/CM/038

NHS Scotland Understanding and responding to the Religious and Belief needs of patients as they relate to their use of NHS services is no longer an option, but essential.

As societies become more diverse, so within healthcare increasing emphasis is rightly being given to the particular needs and requirements of the individual patient – not only in relation to their clinical needs, but also in relation to their cultural, religious, and spiritual needs.

For hospitals are places where people struggle to hang on to their individuality amid the clinical procedures set in place to make them physically or mentally well. "Spiritual care is not necessarily religious; religious care, at its best, should always be spiritual." Although healthcare has always been practised regardless of any person’s particular religion or belief, events in the World have demonstrated that religion remains a highly significant factor today.

 Recent advances in psycho neuro immunology [the new scientific discipline of the link between our emotional / psychological state, and the nerve connections to the body’s immune system responsible for fighting disease] demonstrate the science behind the link that the ancient wisdoms and religions have known for millennia – that mind, body and spirit are all interconnected.  NHS Scotland Religion and Belief Matters

Transcultural Mental Healthcare: this pathway focuses on cultural capability in health and social care, and providing training in health services research. Students develop a knowledge base derived from anthropological, medical, sociological, epidemiological, pharmacological and cultural understandings of the presentation, expression and management of psychological distress among black and ethnic minorities.

• Psychological Therapies: this pathway focuses on cultural capability in psychotherapeutic interventions. Students introduced to the major psychological therapies (e.g. cognitive-behavioural, cognitive analytic, psychoanalytic,group and family therapies, etc.), with particular emphasis being placed on how the issues of difference and diversity can impact upon the therapeutic relationship.


Culture can dramatically affect how patients interact with health services.  Patients from different cultures may have different expectations about their management. Multicultural consultations are becoming more common in the UK and there is also more diversity within the NHS. The impact of multicultural consultations varies but is heavily influenced by the clinician's ability to be aware of and deal with the implications.

Pre conceptions - With sufficient honesty most doctors will remember situations where their own views interfered with the quality of care they provided for somebody of a different culture.

Incorrect preconceptions, such as 'multicultural consultations are always difficult and difficult consultations take longer' or 'the average state of health in ethnic minorities is always worse than that of the majority', are likely to lead to rushed and superficial consultations.

Ignorance or denial regarding differences of culture is equally damaging. Of course, there is no need to be perfect and absolutely impartial towards every single patient and colleague, but it is important to be aware of one's own restrictions in order to handle these as best we can. We should not forget that our own values, biases or personal concerns can change dramatically within a short time in response to experiences or decisions.

calendermonthlyCultural competence or cultural sensitivity is the ability to overcome one's own restrictions, resentments and any significant sense of vulnerability, and to deal flexibly with people from different walks of life, with no focus on any particular groups.

The quality of communication skills will be high and there should be awareness that people's perspectives can differ significantly. It is not easy to devise a plan on how to achieve or 'teach' this and even personal experience, for example medical professionals who come from minorities themselves, does not automatically improve understanding of all the perspectives and needs of other minorities.

The complexity of culture Many seminars for 'diversity training' concentrate on differences of race rather than attitudes and are often confused with 'ethnicity', or the belonging to a certain race. However, ethnicity is not defined by skin colour but could be regarded as the identification of an individual with a social group on grounds of common origin, shared history or culture.

Talking about culture can hardly be free of a degree of judgment and comparison of perceived values. We are, strictly speaking, all multicultural and will keep changing throughout our lifetime and circumstances.

Some elements of our personal culture are fixed, for example gender, age or language, whereas others are more fluid and can be influenced by factors, such as choice of occupation, sexual orientation, political values, religion, health or disability.

Culture in itself is therefore a complex and somewhat vague and dynamic social phenomenon, based on physiology and genetics but more so on beliefs, values and attitudes that can bring people together and influence their behaviour as members of a cultural group.

Awareness of this is highly important as the effects of culture on people can influence many areas of their life, including communication style, health beliefs (for example, aetiology of problems, likely outcomes, what is normal or abnormal, the impact of certain life events in some cultures), diet, lifestyle, rituals, taboos, family roles and set-up, decision-making processes, interaction with health care professionals, clinical presentation (especially mental illness) and response to medical or non-medical interventions.

Patients' expectations may differ from what we usually expect in terms of management, from the style of history taking to the examination and the decision for or against further investigations. Demands of different patients can vary widely.

DIET - Many religious groups have specific dietary rules and restrictions, usually based on a religious reason or to safeguard health, such as the Kosher (fit to eat) rules of Judaism, the Halal rules of Islam, or the vegetarian diets of many religions.

Vegetarianism includes total vegetarianism -- a vegan diet that allows only food of plant origin; lacto-vegetarianism that adds dairy products; lacto-ovo vegetarianism that adds dairy products and eggs; and semi-vegetarianism that includes dairy products, eggs and limited amounts of poultry and fish. No vegetarian diet allows red meat.

People can become quite upset when given the wrong diet. Removing the offending food from a plate may suffice, but the patient may consider the other food on the plate contaminated. In some cultures, the family supplies all the food for those in a health care facility.

The members of some religions use their right hand for eating and their left hand for other purposes, thus considering the right clean and the left unclean. This could cause difficulties if the right arm is immobilized for treatment, i.e., intravenous therapy. In many situations, the religious representative of the patient's faith might be able to help resolve dietary problems, possibly by relieving the patient of religious duties during the inpatient or treatment period.

Cultural competence - To achieve a degree of cultural sensitivity a clinician must develop awareness of the elements of culture and the differences, and be able to adjust successfully using skill, experience and factual knowledge (for example, Muslim patients will not take tablets or medicines in the fasting hours during Ramadan, or patients with an Afro-Caribbean background are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease). However, most cultural competence has to do with attitude and sensitivity acquired by self-reflection rather than academic study.

Ethnic minorities have in many ways similar patterns of health behaviour and disease compared with the surrounding community. However, asylum seekers may have issues with post-traumatic stress either from experiences in their home country or from challenges and isolation after arrival in the UK. Also, certain conversion symptoms due to psychosomatic conflicts over specific moral values can differ between cultures, as may the ability to gain insight to overcome them.

2012covercalendermonthlyMulticultural consultations can run easier if we remain genuinely curious about other cultures, if we are not afraid to ask when in doubt, if we are aware of our own limitations or assumptions and keep questioning ourselves about them, and if we accept that some difficulties might be unsolvable. However, it is important to make the effort to overcome barriers as best as possible.

A patient-centred consultation style with careful acknowledgement of verbal and non- verbal signs is more likely to ensure positive outcomes, better understanding, compliance and motivation. Language barriers and tools to overcome them may require additional planning, for example professional interpreters or language lines.

Multicultural consultations can be challenging and frustrating, but also rewarding and enriching in terms of opening our perspective and knowledge of the world and the problems we share but deal with differently. We do not usually need to change ourselves or others fundamentally to make these consultations work quite well. Consultations skills: Multicultural consultations By Dr Tillmann Jacobi, 05 May 2011

A religious faith tradition provides a social and conceptual setting for the personal encounter with God. It connects the inner world of spirituality to the outer world of culture and history by providing, community, language and spiritual tools.

Most religious traditions are embodied in a historic faith community, which provides social support and reinforcement for the values and practices of the religion and a sense of significance for otherwise isolated individuals. By bringing inner spiritual experience out into the world of people, it prevents other-worldly introversion at the expense of relationships and society.

Otherwise there is danger of ending up with a privatized experience unconnected to the social dimension. Usually a "Sacred Text" provides the community with identity and its main teachings and stories. In turn, the community acts as the guarding of the text, and sees that it is preserved, copied and passed down to succeeding generations.


Equalities: Religion & Belief - Making a request for leave linked to Religious Observance

Every year the CWU Equalities Dept. is approached with enquiries from our members who feel aggrieved that requests for leave linked to religious holidays have been rejected by their employers.Our members come from a very diverse set of backgrounds and effectively they reflect the communities where we live and the society at large.

Many religions or beliefs have specific days of cultural or religious significance and the CWU believe that as long as our members give good notice on their requests for leave every reasonable effort should be made to accommodate these requests. Time off for such occasions should be allowed whenever reasonably practicable and should be taken from the member’s leave entitlement in the normal manner or as a special leave request.

Religious holy days are based on different calendars, including the lunar calendar which is determined by phases of the moon. Important dates can fall within a range of days and sometimes the exact date is not being known until very close to the time. Where dates fall within high annual leave periods it maybe more difficult getting leave granted. Employers will cite operational requirements and maintaining a service but they should be pushed to ensure ALL reasonable requests are explored fully - in these situations the maximum visibility possible should be given to the employer.

What does the law say? Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 were first introduced in December 2003 making it unlawful for employers to discriminate directly or indirectly when dealing with requests for time off for religious observance. This law also covers people who do not have a belief.

The original legislation has now been superseded by the Equality Act 2010. Whilst there is no express right to take time off, the law is clearly designed to attempt to accommodate peoples’ religious and cultural beliefs and employers will be at risk of direct or indirect discrimination if leave linked to an employee’s religion is refused and cannot be justified.

For example rigid working patterns would be likely to result in indirect discrimination unless the refusal can be objectively justified. i.e. the employer will need to show that any requirement to work certain hours is justified as a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.

The employer would also need to demonstrate that it has achieved a reasonable balance in accommodating requests, versus disallowing unreasonable requests and that the process and decision making is fair and transparent demonstrating that one group of people are not being favoured over another.
Adopting a practical approach

  The Equality Department recommends that discussions with employees take place early in the year to help to determine the range of different religious practices in any operational unit – this will enable effective planning to take place. Our members should be encouraged to make early applications for such leave.

calendermonthlyIt will also be worth making the employer aware that some religious festivals are subject to the phase of the moon and so may not be known until within 4 weeks of the day. However, there should be sufficient information on the web to give members a reasonably accurate indication as to when a festival will fall.

  1. If a unit has a maximum number of employees that can be allowed away at any one time you may need to revisit this to secure an amendment to this during a period relating to a religious festival, where requests are likely to increase.
  2. If shortfalls exist seek flexible methods to resolve these. Custom and practice has seen early calls for volunteers to work overtime, or in some cases casuals have also been hired to allow people to have leave for religious festivals. The latter should be managed very carefully for obvious reasons and where possible overtime is a preferred facilitator. Split shifts or swaps should also be considered.
  3.  It is good practice to encourage the employer to adopt a fully transparent process for determining who should be allowed off.
  4.  In some circumstances our members can in theory apply for special leave, if annual leave channels are exhausted. This is in the spirit of exploring all possible options.

    Special leave can be unpaid or worked back at another point.

  • Where our members make a request, the request and outcome must be recorded and a written response provided by the employer to the member.
  • If a system of priority is in place due to a genuine incapability to give everyone time off, which can be justified, any member not being granted leave in one year should be given priority in the next year.
  • If a member feels they have been unreasonably overlooked in a request to have leave linked to their religious beliefs or culture, then in the first instance this should be challenged with the line manager who has refused permission. They should be made aware of their employment rights but in the first instance a grievance should be considered by the individual.

Tips for making a request for leave linked to religious observance:-  Read the above document
    Make all requests in writing (inc. e-mail))
    If you are given a verbal reply, ask for it in writing
    If you feel that you are being unfairly treated under the guidence given above, contact the Branch for advice



Anthony Lester and Paola Uccellari, ‘Extending the equality duty to religion, conscience and belief:
Proceed with caution’ [2008] EHRLR 567. The following quotation is telling in its conservatism: ‘A duty to promote equality of opportunity among believers and non-believers might cause central or local government or statutory quangos to provide equal funding to all religious service providers, thus increasing the areas of life touched by religion, or to withdraw funding from all religious organisations. Neither outcome is desirable.’ 571–72 (emphasis added).

In particular,it is the duty to foster good relations (ie tackling prejudice and promoting understanding) in section 149(c) of the Equality Act 2010 which may encourage public authorities both to adopt controversial positions on religious and other forms of diversity and to stifle those who disagree. Properly understood, promoting religious equality requires nothing more and nothing less than promoting respect for individual and collective religious equality rights. Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, (2012), pp. 1–18 (page 18)


Healing from Within: Spirituality and Mental Health Dr. Larry Culliford
Mental health is much more than the absence of mental illness

A principle of the spiritual approach to healthcare is that while adversity befalls everyone, it is possible to grow through it. People often become stronger emotionally, more resilient and more mature 6. Indeed, such maturity is difficult to develop without trials to undergo and obstacles to overcome.

Caring still involves the relief of unnecessary pain and suffering where possible, but spiritual awareness can add a powerful and much-needed dimension whenever our human limits are reached. The spiritual approach fosters a positive attitude even in the most heart-rending situations. By focusing on both inner and external sources of strength, spiritual awareness encourages calm in the place of anxiety and hope in place of despair.
2012coverSpiritual practices – religious and secular

calendermonthly• Belonging to a faith tradition and community
• Ritual practices and other forms of worship
• Pilgrimage and retreats & Meditation and prayer
• Reading wisdom literature and scripture
• Sacred music (listening to and producing it) including songs, hymns, psalms and devotional chant
• Selfless, compassionate action (including work, especially teamwork)
• Other ‘secular’ spiritual practices, including deep reflection (contemplation), engaging with and enjoying nature, also aesthetic appreciation of the arts
• Maintaining stable family relationships and friendships (especially those involving high levels of trust and intimacy)
• Some types of regular co-operative group or team activity (such as in some sporting and recreational clubs) involving a special quality of fellowship

Personal relationships Kindness to others/selflessness - Acceptance of others
• Forgiveness & Codes to live by
• Freedom to practice beliefs and rituals - Faith & Specific religious beliefs

The Past - Emotional stress usually involves some kind of loss, or the threat of loss. Have you suffered any major losses or bereavements? How did they affect you? How did you cope? What helped you to survive? Is it possible that you gained something from experiencing such a loss? Would you say you were emotionally stronger or more resilient now?

The Present - Do you have a feeling of belonging and being valued here? Do you feel safe? Are there enough opportunities for meaningful activity? Are you treated with respect and dignity? Are you being listened to as you would wish? Thinking about what is happening to you now, how would you describe it? Would you say you were having symptoms of mental illness of some kind? Would you prefer another explanation? Would it help to talk, to try and make some sense or meaning out of your life and what’s going on? Could there be a spiritual aspect to your problem or your current needs? Would it help if a room in the hospital was set aside as a quiet place to pray or worship? Would it help you to speak to a chaplain, or someone from your own faith community? Please feel free to say more about your religious background.

The Future - How do you consider the immediate future? What about the longer term? Do you sometimes find yourself thinking about death and dying? Or about the possibility of an afterlife? Would you like to say a bit more about this? What are your main fears regarding the future? Do you have any lingering guilt, or feel the need for forgiveness? What, if anything, gives you hope? Is there anything else you would like to say, or ask?

Remedies - What kind of support do you think would help now? What do you think would be helpful specifically in terms of religious and/or spiritual input?
Who do you think could best offer any support that you may require, for instance, health professionals, members of your family, or members of your religious community? How will you go about asking for the help you need? What can you do to help yourself?

Providing Spiritual Support - To raise these topics and listen respectfully is already to provide a measure of spiritual support for people. Nevertheless, referral for pastoral care or encouraging self-referral to experienced mental health chaplains will be called for on occasion. An ideal and adequately resourced mental health chaplaincy department in the United Kingdom will have access to sacred space as well as interview space, and will involve clergy and other appropriate personnel from many faiths and humanist organisations, as well as from several Christian denominations.

Clinicians should consider suggesting a referral of an outpatient to such a mental health chaplain if they feel that their patient may either have a religious component to her/his illness or is using religious beliefs or practices as coping mechanisms. Chaplains working in the mental health area should undergo suitable training in mental health in addition to any general healthcare training undertaken.

Trainers - Aspects of religion and spirituality should be included in the curriculum of the training of health professionals. This is not to produce religious experts but to facilitate an understanding of spiritual concepts in the lives of their clients.

Managers - As part of their audit of the standards of care in hospital (NHS 2001 p.28 – 31) managers need to include in the audit sensitivity to, and respect for, religious, spiritual and cultural needs of patients. As well as asking about religious affiliation, if any, patients should be allowed time and opportunity to discuss their religiousness or spirituality should they wish. This opportunity should not be just on admission but should be a continuing opportunity to allow for the difficulty, demonstrated in this study, which some will experience in articulating their needs and orientation. http://www.multifaiths.com/pdf/HealingFromwithin.pdf


Sadhana Tattva Or The Science Of Seven Cultures
For Quick Evolution of the Human Being By Sri Swami Sivananda

(a) An ounce of practice is better than tons of theory. Practice Yoga, Religion and Philosophy in daily life and attain Self-realization.
(b)These thirty-two instructions give the essence of the Eternal Religion (Sanatana Dharma) in its purest form. They are suitable for modern busy householders with fixed hours of work. Modify them to suit your convenience and increase the period gradually.
(c) In the beginning take only a few practicable resolves which form a small but definite advance over your present habits and character. In case of ill-health, pressure of work or unavoidable engagements replaces your active Sadhana (spiritual practice) by frequent remembrance of God.

1. Eat moderately. Take light and simple food. Offer it to God before you eat. Have a balanced diet.
2. Avoid spicy and hot foods, like chillies, garlic, onions, tamarind, etc., as far as possible. Give up tea, coffee, smoking, betels, meat and wine entirely.
3. Fast on Ekadasi days or once in a fortnight. Take milk, fruits or roots only.
4. Practice Yoga Asana (Hatha Yoga exercises) or physical exercises for 15 to 30 minutes every day. Take a long walk or play some vigorous games daily.


5. Observe silence (Mouna) for 2 hours daily and 4 to 8 hours on Sundays.
6. Observe celibacy according to your age and circumstances. Restrict the indulgence to once a month. Decrease it gradually to once a year. Finally take a vow of abstinence for whole life.

7. Speak the TRUTH. Speak little. Speak kindly. Speak sweetly.
8. Do not injure anyone in thought, word or deed. Be kind to all.
9. Be sincere, straightforward and open-hearted in your talks and dealings.
10. Be honest. Earn by the sweat of your brow. Do not accept any money, things or favour unless earned lawfully. Develop nobility and integrity.
11. Control fits of anger by serenity, patience, love, mercy and tolerance. Forget and forgive. Adapt yourself to men and events.

12. Live without sugar for a week or month. Give up salt on Sundays.
13. Give up cards, novels, cinemas and clubs. Fly from evil company. Avoid discussions with materialists. Do not mix with persons who have no faith in God or who criticize your Sadhana (spiritual practices).
14. Curtail your wants. Reduce your possessions. Have plain living and high thinking.

15. Doing good to others is the highest religion. Do some selfless service for a few hours every week, without egoism or expectation of reward. Do your worldly duties in the same spirit. Work is worship. Dedicate it to God.
16. Give 2 to 10 percent of your income in charity every month. Share what you have with others. Let the world be your family. Remove selfishness.
17. Be humble and prostrate yourself to all beings mentally. Feel the Divine Presence everywhere. Give up vanity, pride and hypocrisy.
18. Have unwavering faith in God, the Bhagavad-Gita and your Guru. Make a total self-surrender to God and pray: "Thy Will be done; I want nothing." Submit to the Divine Will in all events and happenings with equanimity.
19. See God in all beings and love them as your own Self. Do not hate anyone.
20. Remember God at all times or, at least, on rising from bed, during a pause in work and before going to bed. Keep a Mala (rosary) in your pocket.

21. Study one chapter or ten to twenty-five verses of the Gita or your scriptures with meaning, daily. Learn the original language of your scripture, at least sufficient to understand it in original.
22. Memorize important and inspiring portions of your sacred scripture according to your capacity. Memorize also any inspiring quotations from other spiritual books. Keep a pocket version your scripture with you at all times.
23. Read the Ramayana, the Bible, the Quran, the Bhagavata, the Upanishads, the Yogavasishtha or other religious books daily without fail. Study more during holidays.
24. Attend religious meetings and seek Satsanga (company) with saints at every opportunity. If not, create opportunities. Listen to spiritual discourses from learned and holy people. If possible, organize such functions on Sundays or holidays.
25. Visit a temple or place of worship daily. Preferably before you leave and upon your return from work, even if only for 5 or 10 minutes.
26. Spend holidays and leave-periods, when possible, in the company of saints or practice Sadhana at holy places in seclusion.

27. Go to bed early. Get up at four o'clock. Answer calls of nature, clean your mouth and take a bath.
28. Recite some prayers and Kirtan Dhvanis (devotional songs). Practice Pranayama (breathing exercises), Japa (repetition of the Divine Name of God) and meditation in the early morning. Sit on Padma, Siddha, or Sukha Asana throughout, without movement, by gradual practice. While you meditate, forget the outside world totally. Gradually increase the period of meditation.
29. Perform the daily prayers of your religion. Do not fail to fulfil your obligatory duties.
30. Write your favourite Mantra or Name of God in a notebook for ten to thirty minutes, daily.
31. Sing the Names of God (Kirtan) and pray for half to one hour at night with family and friends.
32. Make annual resolves on the above lines. Regularity, tenacity and fixity are essential. Record your Sadhana in a spiritual diary daily. Review it every month and correct your failures.

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